This discussion addresses the following outcomes:

  • Examine the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments to the Constitution and consider their impact on American politics and society (CO#4, CO#5).
  • Speculate on the impact of Reconstruction’s failure for African Americans into the late nineteenth century (CO#3, CO#5, CO#6/Gen. Ed. Outcome 4.2).

When the Civil War ended in 1865, the federal government made a conscious effort to establish the status of former slaves (freemen and women) and to integrate black Americans into the political mainstream. To assure this process, the United States passed the Thirteenth (1865) and Fourteenth Amendments (1868). In addition, the Fifteenth Amendment (1870) ensured voting rights for black men. The Reconstruction period lasted until 1877 but its impact continued well after that.

In preparation for our discussion be sure to read the Module Notes, Chapter 15: “Reconstruction (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.” in The American Yawp, and Grimsley, M. (2012), Wars for the American South: The First and Second Reconstructions Considered as Insurgencies (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..  In addition, consult the following primary sources: Thirteenth Amendment to the US Constitution (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.(1865), Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (1868), Fifteenth Amendment to the US Constitution (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (1870).

Using the primary and secondary sources above as evidence, consider the following in a post of at least 250 words:

  • What were the reasons for the passage of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments, and what were Amendments’ impacts on American history?
  • Why and how did Reconstruction fail to protect the rights of black Americans? How did this failure continue to shape American politics and social relations afterward?

Then, over the course of the week, respond to the posts of at least two of your classmates.

Your initial post is due by Thursday at 11:59PM. Your responses are due by Sunday at 11:59PM.

Consult the Discussion Posting Guide for information about writing your discussion posts. It is recommended that you write your post in a document first. Check your work and correct any spelling or grammatical errors. When you are ready to make your initial post, click on “Reply.” Then copy/paste the text into the message field, and click “Post Reply.” This is a “post first” discussion forum. You must submit your initial post before you can view other students’ posts.

To respond to a peer, click “Reply” beneath her or his post and continue as with an initial post.


This discussion will be graded using a rubric. Please review this rubric prior to beginning your work. View the rubric by clicking on the gear icon Image of gear icon at the top right side of this page or on the Course Rubrics page within the Start Here module. All discussions combined are worth 20% of your final course grade.


Question 1. The Evolution of Greek Sculpture

As we learned this week, sculptors in Ancient Greece strove to achieve perfection in the works of art they created. Carefully examine the following sculptures and read about each one in your textbook, course and video lectures, and through reliable internet resources:

Peplos Kore, from the Acropolis, Athens, c. 530 BCE
Warrior, found in the sea off Riace, Italy, c. 460-450 BCE
Hagesandros, Polydoros, and Athanadoros of Rhodes, Laocoön and His Sons, 2nd-1st c BCE

Then, in a minimum of 2 well-developed paragraphs, answer the following questions:

  • What specific visual similarities do you observe in these three sculptures?
  • What specific differences do you see? Consider the representation of the figure, facial expression or suggested emotion, additional objects portrayed, and the role of the viewer for each sculpture.
  • How is each sculpture representative of the period in Ancient Greece (e.g., Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic) in which it was created?

Be sure to explain your ideas clearly and support them by discussing specific details about each sculpture.

Question 2. Religious Symbolism

This week, we studied cultures that recognized a pantheon of gods and goddesses, such as Ancient Greece and Rome, and also explored the early artistic objects of the Jewish and Christian faiths.

Carefully examine the following sculptures and read about each one in your textbook, course and video lectures, and through reliable internet resources:

Dionysiac mystery frieze, Second Style wall paintings in room 5 of the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 60–50 BCE
Samuel anoints David, detail of the main interior wall of the synagogue, Dura-Europos, Syria, ca. 245–256
The Transfiguration of Christ, Church of Sant’ Apollinare in Classe, 533-549 CE

multiple choose for history hi

1.  9. What was the point of the ideology of the “separate sphere” promoted in the mid-nineteenth century by men like the evangelical minister Philemon Fowler?
[removed] a. Women and men in reform movements should hold separate meetings.
[removed] b. Women should focus on domestic life, not public life.
[removed] c. Whites and blacks belonged in separate spheres of society.

d. Women should be housed separately from men in prisons and institutions for the mentally ill.



6.  4. The Mormons differed from other communal experiments in their
[removed] a. emphasis on traditional patriarchal authority.
[removed] b. practice of complex marriage.
[removed] c. practice of celibacy.

d. emphasis on individualism.




7.  3. Which statement assesses the historical significance of the Shakers, Fourierists, and Oneidians?
[removed] a. They gathered extremely large followings.
[removed] b. They radically questioned sexual norms and class divisions.
[removed] c. They explicitly addressed questions of racial inequality.

d. They pushed American crafts to new artistic levels.



9.  12. Women at the Seneca Falls Convention based their Declaration of Sentiments on
[removed] a. the Declaration of Independence.
[removed] b. transcendentalism.
[removed] c. abolitionism.

d. the Constitution.



10.  11. The national women’s rights convention of 1851 declared that which of the following was the cornerstone of the goals of the women’s movements?
[removed] a. Property rights
[removed] b. Abolition
[removed] c. Moral reform

d. Suffrage  



11.  10. What did women reformers refer to when they spoke about “domestic slavery” in the 1840s?
[removed] a. Slavery in the United States vis-à-vis slavery in South America
[removed] b. Women’s loss of legal rights in the institution of marriage
[removed] c. The service of maids and female servants in upper-class households

d. The experience of house slaves in the South




12.  1. Why did Ralph Waldo Emerson’s ideas have the greatest impact on the middle class?
[removed] a. The middle class had already embraced moral perfection and moral free agency.
[removed] b. The middle class was the most likely to promote abolitionism.
[removed] c. The middle class was already involved in moral reform.
[removed] d. The middle class had already rejected organized religion.

A-plus writer

Response Paper 1: Confucius

Book Response Papers Assignment


This should be a one-half page (approximately 250 word) response. It should not be a summary, but an essay on your intellectual and emotional reactions to the book. This essay should be submitted before you continue on in the course in order to receive feedback that will help improve your future essays. For more detailed instructions on this assignment, see the Book Response Papers section in the Course Organizationsection of the syllabus.

Topic: Confucius



The Religious Thought of Confucius

By now I hope it’s clear that Confucius was above all a philosopher. He knew about but did not dwell on the paradoxical and perplexing questions of our existence. He thought and spoke little about death, the afterlife, or the gods and our relationships with them. For him, this life had enough problems of its own for us to worry about the afterlife or the gods. A famous line in the Analects sums this up: “Pay your respects to the spirits and gods, but keep them at a distance.” Depending on the translation, you can also have this: “By paying your respects to the spirits and gods, you can keep them at a distance.” Regardless of how you translate, one thing is clear: the gods and spirits were not supremely important to Confucius. He had more important and urgent matters to attend to in the here and now than to worry about the realm of the dead and the supernatural. Here is another famous line in the Analects: “Never having understood life, how is it possible to understand death?” (I had this line thrown at me in Taiwan as a missionary.) The question for Confucius is not whether the spirits and gods existed—he probably thought they did; the question for him was what to do with this belief. “Not much,” he seemingly answers.

Confucius was a very practical man with little patience for mysticism. He might have heard of the Upanishads in India and the emphasis there on meditation to fuse your individual self with the Great Self of the universe. He tried it, but he didn’t like it. He said, “I have at times spent a whole day without taking food and a whole night without sleep, occupied with thinking [meditation]. It was of no use. I have found it better to study.”

Confucius would have rather read a good book, especially if it were on the history of the early Western Chou, when all was well in society. Confucius did have a great reverence for Heaven. He saw Heaven more or less as nature, or the way the universe ran itself. For him, Heaven was trying to speak to us. It had something to teach us. Heaven, or the natural universe, was an inspiring model of well-ordered constancy. The seasons came and went according to their pattern, the birds came and went, and crops grew in accordance with their seasons. Human beings should be inspired by this, he believed, and order their society after the pattern indicated to them by nature. Heaven was to be analyzed and then duplicated in the world of man. On one occasion, Confucius seems to have been frustrated with his pupils, who were learning imperfectly. He announced to them he would rather not speak at all. He said:

“I would rather not speak at all.”

“But if you do not speak, sir,” asked Tzu-kung, “what shall we, your disciples, learn from you to be taught to others?”

“Look at the Heaven there,” answered Confucius. “Does it speak? And yet the seasons run their appointed courses and all things in nature grow up in their time. Look at the Heaven there: does it speak?”

history assign 2.2

Assignment 2.2: Liberty Challenged in Nineteenth Century America Final Paper
Due Week 10 and worth 140 points

You have already developed a thesis statement and an outline in which you explored the peculiar institution known as slavery. Now you will develop the final paper in which you explore your main points in detail.

  1. Introduce your paper with your previously crafted thesis statement.
  2. Describe two (2) outcomes of the 3/5ths Compromise, Missouri Compromise of 1820, Compromise of 1850, Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the Dred Scott Decision. Note: Be sure to provide two (2) outcomes for each legislation.
  3. Suggest three (3) reasons why slavery was, and is, incompatible with our political and economic system.
  4. List three to five (3-5) driving forces that led to the Civil War.
  5. Use at least three (3) academic references besides or in addition to the textbook. Note: Wikipedia and other similar websites do not qualify as academic resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • This course requires use of Strayer Writing Standards (SWS). The format is different than other Strayer University courses. Please take a moment to review the SWS documentation for details.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Recognize the main factors that led to America’s early development.
  • Identify and discuss the different ways that the heritages of slavery, the Civil War, and Reconstruction have shaped America’s history.
  • Summarize and discuss the ways that formal policies of government have influenced the direction of historical and social development in the United States.
  • Examine how changes in social and economic conditions and technology can cause corresponding changes in the attitudes of the people and policies of the government.
  • Specify ways that women and minorities have responded to challenges and made contributions to American culture.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in American History to 1865.
  • Write clearly and concisely about American History to 1865 using proper writing mechanics.

Click here to view grading rubric.

American History

Background: The Great Depression and World War II represented tumultuous years for Americans. From the widespread and appalling poverty of the Great Depression to the horror and excitement of World War II, Americans were forced to work together for the good of each other and the nation. The experiences of these years, both the good and the bad, forever changed the Americans who lived through them. 

Required Sources: Choose one of the chapters from the oral history collections below

  • A Taste of Freedom. A Little Taste of Freedom: The Black Freedom Struggle in Claiborne County, Mississippi.
  • Honor and humiliation. Hard times: An oral history of the great depression
  • French Carpenter Clark. Women’s Diaries and Letters of the South: Country Women Cope with Hard Times: A Collection of Oral Histories.

Recommended Source

  • WWII: Breadlines to boomtimes in Films on Demand database.

Based on the oral history that you read and your textbook, consider the changes that the United States went through from the Great Depression through World War II. In your post, explain:

  • At least three causes of the Great Depression and the New Deal responses to them.
  • How the societal changes of this period affected individual Americans. Provide at least one example from the oral history that you read to support your points.

Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Support your claims with examples from the required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references. Your references and citations must be formatted according to APA style as outlined by the Ashford Writing Center.  Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts by Day 7. Each response should be at least 100 words.

Read the Purushartha – Siddhyapaya of the Agamas in (World religion ) and write a one to two page summary of its contents

Read the Purushartha – Siddhyapaya of the Agamas (an exposition of the sayings of Jainism founder Mahavira), lines 1-20 at http://www.jainworld.com/scriptures/purusharthasiddhyapaya.asp and write a one to two page summary of its contents MLA style 

Purushartha – Siddhyapaya

Acharya Amrit Chandra Suri 

Translated by Ajit Prasada 

Exposition of Purushartha-Siddhyupaya. 

 1. Victory to that Supreme Intelligence, where, a it were in a mirror, is reflected the chain of all substances, in all their infinite conditions. 

 2. I bow to Anekant (Jaina Philosophy), which is the root basis of the Highest Scripture, which dispels the wrong notions about elephant, of person born blind, and which removes the contradictions amongst all those who entertain one-sided or limited points of view.  

3. After having carefully studied the Highest Scripture, which affords a matchless vision of the three worlds, I proceed to expound, for the sake of scholars, this (treatise) Purushartha-Siddhyapaya.  

4. True philosophy is promulgated in the Universe, by those who, themselves conversant with the real and the practical aspects, dispel the difficult-to-be-removed ignorance of pupils by an exposition of both the absolute and the relative aspects of things.  

5. In this connection, Nishchaya is defined as the Real, and Vyavahara as unreal. Almost the whole world has its face against Knowledge of the real aspect.  

6. The high saints point out Vyavahara for the guidance of the ignorant. A discourse is of no avail to one, who knows Vyavahara only.

 7. Just as a cat represents a lion to one who has not known as lion, similarly Vyavahara alone is Nishchaya unto him who does not know what Nischaya is.  

8. That student alone achieves the full benefit of teaching, who, having well understood both Vyavahara and Nishchaya, in their true nature, becomes neutral.  

9. Purusha (the soul) is pure consciousness. It is free from touch, smell, taste and colour, has its own attributes and conditions, and is possessed of manifestation, disappearance and continuity. 

 10. Undergoing, through illusory knowledge, constant changes since eternity, it causes and experiences its own thought activities.

11. When Jiva, having got rid of all illusion, attains everlasting consciousness, it then becomes one who has accomplished all that was to be accomplished, and is possessed of the success resulting from right exertion. 

12. Again, other molecules of matter, coming in contact with the stimulus of (impure) thought-activities emanating from the Jiva, themselves turn into the form of Karma.  

13. To a Jiva, modifying itself by its own (impure) thought activities, the material Karma (in operation) acts only as a stimulus.  

14. Thus, though Jiva is not identified with the thought activities caused by Karmas, yet to the ignorant it appears to be so identified. This illusion is verily the seed of samsara.  

15. Having got rid of the above perversity and having well realized the nature of the Self, steadfastness therein is the means to the acquisition of the object of Jiva.  

16. The life-routine of such saints as follow this path, as are ever averse to questionable conduct, and have adopted complete renunciation, is uncommon indeed.  

17. He who, in spite of repeated dissertations, in unable to accept the path of absolute renunciation, should in that event, be lectured upon partial renunciation.  

18. The unwise (preceptor) who without discoursing upon the “order of saints” only lectures upon “order of the householder” is, according to the saying of the worshipful, deserving of censure. 

 19 Because, on account of the ill-regulated discourses of the unwise (preceptor), even the disciple, who had pitched up his resolution high, is made to content himself only with a low position and is thus misled.  

20 And, for him also the three-fold path of liberation, consisting of right belief, right knowledge, and right conduct, is to be constantly followed according to his capacity. 


American History

Background: When World War I ended in 1918, Americans welcomed what they hoped would be a return to normalcy. The decades that followed, however, are ones which would rarely be described as normal in comparison to what came before or after. After World War I ended and through the 1920s, a struggle ensued within the American nation regarding how best to define the nation’s essential character, as groups like the revived Ku Klux Klan fought a rearguard action to define nationhood solely in terms of white skin and Protestant religion against secularists, Catholics, flappers, “New Negroes,” and others who challenged the traditional order. Immediately thereafter, the New Deal implemented in response to the Great Depression revolutionized the role of the federal government in lives of the American people, in ways that many Americans believed violated the basic tenets of the Constitution—and others believed were not radical enough. Taken together, the decades from 1920 to 1940 may have transformed the American nation more than any other comparable time period.

Required sources:

Primary sources:

Recommended sources:

  • The Twenties in the Films on Demand database.
  • Proletarians of the North: A History of Mexican Industrial Workers in Detroit and the Midwest, 1917-1933.

Pick an event from World War I through the 1920s and a corresponding primary source* that you can use in your Final Paper. Use the Credibility: Critical Thinking video and the Library of Congress primary source analysis tool to help you as you think about the primary source. Explain in at least 250 words 

  • Why you think the event was important and how it relates to your Final Paper topic.
  • What the primary source you chose tells you about this topic.
  • What it does not tell you


Please read Ethics & Equity When is a Dairy Farm a Trade or Business on pg 6-17. Is the position by Randolph defensible? Review the 9 factors considered to help determine whether an operation should be considered a business or hobby. See in the same page the general rules.  You should also do some outside research on the subject, include in your own words and cite your sources.  Write a detailed memo to Randolph with your research findings to properly advise him on this matter. Your memo will likely be  01 page only. –  (Should be less than 20%) –      Due : Tuesday, February 25th 11:59pm.


6-3e Hobby Losses Business or investment expenses are deductible only if the taxpayer can show that the activity was entered into for the purpose of making a profit. Certain activities may have either profit-seeking or personal attributes, depending upon individual circumstances. Examples include raising horses and operating a farm used as a weekend residence. While personal losses are not deductible, losses attributable to profit-seeking activities may be deducted and used to offset a taxpayer’s other income. For this reason, the tax law limits the deductibility of hobby losses.

General Rules If an individual can show that an activity has been conducted with the intent to earn a profit, losses from the activity are fully deductible. The hobby loss rules apply only if the activity is not engaged in for profit. Hobby expenses are deduct- ible only to the extent of hobby income.40 The Regulations stipulate that the following nine factors should be considered in determining whether an activity is profit-seeking or is a hobby:41 • Whether the activity is conducted in a businesslike manner. • The expertise of the taxpayers or their advisers. • The time and effort expended. • The expectation that the assets of the activity will appreciate in value. • The taxpayer’s previous success in conducting similar activities. • The history of income or losses from the activity. • The relationship of profits earned to losses incurred. • The financial status of the taxpayer (e.g., if the taxpayer does not have sub- stantial amounts of other income, this may indicate that the activity is engaged in for profit). • Elements of personal pleasure or recreation in the activity. The presence or absence of a factor is not by itself determinative of whether the activity is profit-seeking or is a hobby. Rather, the decision is a subjective one that is based on an analysis of the facts and circumstances.

ETHICS & EQUITY When Is a Dairy Farm a Trade or Business?

Randolph has been an orthopedic surgeon in New Orleans for 15 years. He would like to devote less time to his medical practice, spend more time with his family, and pay less income tax. His net income from his medical practice has been about $500,000 per year for the past five years. Randolph grew up on a dairy farm in southeastern Louisiana. He has many fond memories of his childhood and believes a farm would be an excellent environment for his three children. Randolph purchases a dairy farm across Lake Pontchartrain from New Orleans. He hires two full-time employees to handle the milking operations and other part-time employees as needed. In addition, Randolph and his family participate in performing various activities on the farm.

Randolph commutes to New Orleans four days a week to continue his medical practice. Because he is devoting less time to the practice, his net income decreases to $400,000. Randolph has a loss of $75,000 for the dairy farm that he attributes to depressed milk prices and his inexperience at running the farm. He considers the medical practice and the dairy farm to be separate trades or businesses. Therefore, on the Federal income tax return, the $75,000 net loss is offset against the $400,000 net income. Assume that the net income and net loss from the medical practice and the dairy farm, respectively, remainapproximatelythesameforthenextfouryears. Is the position adopted by Randolph defensible? Discuss.


Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

World Religion 2-1

NOTE:  Discussion Board writing should be done with the same craft and care as a Reflection Paper: check for spelling and grammatical clarity. Use multiple paragraphs to structure your thinking. Use specific details and examples from text and traditions to support general statements.

Choose only 1 of the following two discussion assignments:

Q1: Both Hinduism and Buddhism involve an element of Liberation.  Discuss the differences between Hinduism and Buddhism in terms of 1) what it is that the individual is being liberated from, and 2) how that liberation is achieved.  Use your best writing and be sure to respond to another students post.  You should have a minimum of 200 words (your own words, not including quotes text or titles) for your initial post and a minimum of 100 words for your response to another student.

Q2: A Breathing Practice for Stress Reduction and Clarity

Practice the following instructions for Buddhist mindfulness relaxation. This is NOT a religion or a form of worship, but a practical stress reduction technique used by many stress counselors and psychologists, but it is an example of how practices from another culture can be part of our own. Practice this at least twice for ten minutes before writing about it. Do not write about the instructions without practicing them! In your journal:

*Please describe effects both in body and mind.

* Please note the relationship between mind a breath.

* End by explaining how this practice could or could not be helpful as a regular stress-reduction practice.


1. Find a comfortable sitting position. Do not lie down, but you may sit relaxed in any position as long as your spine is upright.

2. Do not resist noises. if external noises come up. Let them be.

3. If thoughts come and go, do not try to control them or push them out. Do not attempt to ‘make the mind a blank.’ Just let them pass as they come, without clinging to them or resisting them.

4. Without strain, gently observe your breath. Let the mind keep returning the breath in the present moment every time it wanders off into the past or the future.

5. Follow the breath as it rises and falls. Breathing in, let your attention flow from your belly to a point between your eyebrows. Breathing out, let it flow back down to the belly. Let the breath become slower, gentler, finer.

6. Allow the muscles of the chest, the solar plexus, and the belly to relax with each exhalation.

7.If physical sensations arise, whether in the forehead, the chest, or anywhere, simply feel them. Welcome and absorb them into your breath. Do not resist sensations or try not to feel them.

8. Letting thoughts go, sink into silence. Feel the power of that inner silence.

Ending the Session: Don’t mind the time or watch the clock. When you feel that about 10 minutes have passed, deepen your breath, feel the whole body at rest, and bring your attention to your chest, your face, your eyes. Then slowly open the eyes.