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The structure of a long bone

      Have you ever been wondering  what are the different type of bones ?  and yet they are five types of bones classified as flat, long, short,irregular and  sesamoid. Although, different types of bones have differing shapes connected  to their particular function. My main focus throughout this discourse  is on the structure of a long bone . For one thing, bones give the human body structure and support. Despite first impressions bones  are living  tissues that are constantly being remodeled.

       First and foremost,  the long bones function to support weight in the body and enable movement. They are located  in the appendicular skeleton and cover bones of the lower limbs such as the tibia, fibula,  femur (longest bone in the body) and bones of the upper limbs suchlike  the humerus radius ,ulna   metacarpals and phalanges. In addition , a long bone has two parts known as the diaphysis and the epiphysis . As an illustration, the diaphysis is the tubular shaft that runs in the middle of  the proximal and distal ends of the bone , and is made up primarily of compact bone which is a dense, strong bone composed of minerals , together with calcium, phosphorus . Furthermore , it also has a small hole that transport  nutrients to the compact bone cell.  Between the ephiphysis cap and the long shaft of the diaphysis is a wide section called the metaphysis which are also important for bone growth during childhood and adolescence.  The hollow region is named as  the medullary cavity. It has a thin membranous known as endosteum (inside) , where bone widening  and remodeling occur and a outer surface covered with a fibrous membrane  known as  periosteum (around). Above all, the periosteum contains blood vessels, lymphatic  and nerves that nourish compact bone. As a result, they are  filled with red bone marrow  in children and transititions to  yellow bone marrow as they become adults. 

    In the second place , the epyphises closer to the body is called the proximal epiphysis while the distal is at  the farther end. The epiphysis is connected to the bone shaft by the epiphyseal plate  which is a growth disk of cartillage and Its  main function is to distribute pressure accross the joints to assist in easier mobility. Moreover, epiphysis are filled with spongy bone carrying red bone marrow , that is red in color due to the fact that it makes red blood cell. Under the circumtances, each epiphysis is cover  on  with articular cartilage that connects the bone to the rest of the body while cushioning the end of the bone. (Saladin et al., 2018).

    In summary, long bones are longer than they are wide .They are strong bones because they must be able to withstand the force when the body moves  and changes directions. Based on several studies, the structure of a long bone allows the best visualization of all the parts of a bone. Therefore, 3D vizualization of bone structure is a significant aspect of medical image analysis and research. (Burrghardt et al., 2011).

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