discussion responses 150 words each

Reply to two students and professor.

Be respectful, do ot grade or critique work, ONLY ADD TO THE DISCUSSION.

First response to Jessica

I have chosen topic number 2.

Based on your knowledge, what do you think are the biggest cybersecurity threats to the United States and why?

Some of the biggest cyber security threats here in the United States include old school attacks, hostage situations, the cloud and mobility.

Old School Attacks

Old school attacks typically involve phishing and malware attacks. These attacks have been used for many years and have become so much more sophisticated.

Phishing is considered when an unwary recipient is tricking into clicking on a link or opening an attachment that was infected. It then allows the computer access to this network.

Malware also known as malicious software is versatile and can consist of virus or corrupt software that can be completely unnoticeable.                      

Hostage Situations 

Hostage situations typically refer to ransomware which operates the same as phishing by clicking on an attachment from a so called trusted or known party. However the difference is that it prevents access to this computer until a ransom amount is paid to the hacker in a virtual currency that cannot be traced.

Cloud Computing

Cloud computing refers to the cloud where data is stored. Today many use this cloud to store information, pictures etc. from phones, computers etc. This is what makes it a very obvious target for hackers.


Mobility refers to computing on the move which can be extremely beneficial for big corporations or even smaller companies. However it can create security vulnerability especially if you are using your own devices and connecting directly through wifi.

For example, when I worked from home for Amazon I had to use a laptop which was provided by them and connect directly via a LAN line. It also involved a bunch of security steps which included making a new password each day and turning the computer off every single night. It was only allowed to be used for work purposes nothing outside of work could be used on it for security purposes.

I think all of these serve as a major threat to the United States because honestly everything we do involves the use of technology. Whether it is a phone, computer, security camera or even the newer smart t.v’s they all require the use of internet which can easily be hacked. There have been many instances where security cameras were being hacked by people trying to see the inside of a home before robbing it. This helps them not only navigate but decided when the perfect time is to enter the home, it also helps determine if there is anyone home or if there is any presence of animals.


The Five Biggest Cyber Threats and Skills to Combat Them. (2018, February 02). Retrieved from https://programs.online.utica.edu/articles/biggest-cyber-threats

Second Response to Kareema

The three sources of violence in the Middle East are religion, water, and oil. The Middle East is one of the most religiously diverse regions in the world (Cohen, 2015).  Unlike the rest world where Christianity is the most widely practiced religion, the Middle East consists of religions like Islam, Judaism, Christianity, Buddhism, Yaziti and many other religions. The World Values Survey data showed that 93 percent of resident from the Middle East believe that having God in their lives is very important. The survey also proved that only 53 percent of Middle East citizens think the same on most issues. Violence can be removed from religious conflicts. People need to learn to accept others as they are. Religious views should respect by everyone. We expect others to respect who we are, then we should do the same for others.

Oil is an important product in the Middle East. Controlling oil has played to preserve power and security in the Middle East. This non-renewable source has caused competition between other regions of the world. I do not believe that violence can be removed from this source. Power and control will always come with a side of violence. Many countries rose to power through violence. Oil is a non-renewable source that many countries will fight to the death for.

The Middle East is the destination for 70 percent of the world’s desalination plants. Water prices have risen by 30 percent in the past decade due to the marine environment destruction. At the rate water is currently being consumed at, the Middle East is expected to run out of water in 50 years. Water is an important source of life. No species can survive too long without it. With that said, I do not see violence being taken out of the water crisis that is soon about to rise in the Middle East.

Cohen, A. (2015, April 11). Top three sources for conflict in the Middle East. Retrieved from https://thewellesleynews.com/2015/04/11/middle-east-top-three

For professor response this is the post he replied to reply to his text with is below:

Original Post

Violence in the Middle East has been one of the significant problems especially at the initial stages, and perhaps they tend to be at extreme positions when added with the power and political relations.In the Middle East, there are a lot of conflicts experienced including the unification of Saudi Arabia the Turkish wars of independence and additionally the Egyptian revolution. 

There are various sources of violence in Middle East where they include drought. In precise, water is a significant source of violence. In hot and dry areas where there is fast population growth which therefore becomes a central point of ascending of the violence status. This entails the fight between river Tigrisand the Euphrates where the fresh water supply for human consumption and perhaps for domestic use. (Makdisi 2006)The freshness of water in addition to the national security tends to be a generation of violence due to water disputes. Additionally, there are attacks experienced at the dams, and there is a usage of weapons which cut off water supplies to the flood villages. 

Besides water, religion is another source of diverse regions worldwide. includes Christianity, Judaism, and Islam where they also split themselves to other sub-religions, for instance, Buddhism.(Tuastad 2006)

Oil as another source of violence where the oil-producing regions get densely populated which in most cases Saudi Arabianeeds to reduce the oil prices for economic stability with other areas.​ Besides its world marketability which creates a lot of foreign income hence increasing the country’s economy.

The violence in these sources can get removed when there is a development of technical and analytic tools which may bring about the threat to human security. Moreover through the improvement and enforcement of international water law which protects infrastructural aspect like water and water systems.

Work cited

Makdisi, U. S. (2006). Memory and violence in the Middle East and North Africa. Indiana University Press.

Tuastad, D. (2003). Neo-Orientalism and the new barbarism thesis: aspects of symbolic violence in the Middle East conflict (s). Third World Quarterly, 24(4), 591-599.

Respond to these questions from the professor

Please elaborate what you intended for your message to be in the first sentence of your last paragraph, “The violence in these sources can get removed when there is a development of technical and analytical tools that may bring about the threat to human security.” Exactly what kind of technical and analytical tools are you referring to?

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