Position Statement Critique/National competency standards for the registered nurse

Position Statement Critique/National competency standards for the registered nurse

Position Statement Critique/National competency standards for the registered nurse

Introduction
National competency standards for registered nurses were first adopted by the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council (ANMC) in the early 1990s. The ANMC was a peak national and midwifery organisation established in 1992 to develop a national approach to nursing and midwifery regulation. The ANMC worked in conjunction with the state and territory nursing and midwifery authorities (NMRAs) to produce national standards ? an integral component of the regulatory framework ? to help nurses and midwives deliver safe and competent care. The ANMC officially became the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Accreditation Council (ANMAC) on 24 November 2010. The name change reflected ANMC?s appointment as the independent accrediting authority for the nursing and midwifery professions under the new National Registration and Accreditation Scheme (the National Scheme) that came into effect on 1 July 2010 (18 October 2010 in Western Australia). With the onset of the National Scheme, the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (National Board), took responsibility for the regulation of nurses and midwives in Australia, thus taking ownership of the national competency standards for registered nurses. Since creation, these national competency standards have undergone periodic review and revision, which included extensive consultation with nurses around Australia. This helped to make sure the competency standards remained contemporary and congruent with legislative requirements. The resulting standards, while different in some areas from the previous competency standards, remain broad and principle-based so that they are sufficiently dynamic for practising nurses and the nurse regulators to use as a benchmark to assess competence to practise in a range of settings.
What are the standards used for?
The national competency standards for the registered nurse are the core competency standards by which your performance is assessed to obtain and retain your registration as a registered nurse in Australia.
As a registered nurse, these core competency standards provide you with the framework for assessing your competence, and are used by the National Board to assess competence as part of the annual renewal of registration, to assess nurses:
? educated overseas seeking to work in Australia
? returning to work after breaks in service, or
? involved in professional conduct matters.
The National Board may also apply the competency standards in order to communicate to consumers the standards that they can expect from nurses.
Universities also use the standards when developing nursing curricula, and to assess student and new graduate performance.
These are YOUR standards ? developed using the best possible evidence, and using information and feedback provided by nurses in a variety of settings. Included also are the principles of assessment to help you understand how these standards may be used to assess performance. We believe you will find them user-friendly and easy to understand.
Description of the registered nurse on entry to practice
The registered nurse demonstrates competence in the provision of nursing care as specified by registration requirements, National Board standards and codes, educational preparation, relevant legislation and context of care. The registered nurse practises independently and interdependently, assuming accountability and responsibility for their own actions and delegation of care to enrolled nurses and health care workers. Delegation takes into consideration the education and training of enrolled nurses and health care workers and the context of care.
The registered nurse provides evidence-based nursing care to people of all ages and cultural groups, including individuals, families and communities. The role of the registered nurse includes promotion and maintenance of health and prevention of illness for individuals with physical or mental illness, disabilities and/or rehabilitation needs, as well as alleviation of pain and suffering at the end stage of life.
The registered nurse assesses, plans, implements and evaluates nursing care in collaboration with individuals and the multidisciplinary health care team so as to achieve goals and health outcomes. The registered nurse recognises that ethnicity, culture, gender, spiritual values, sexuality, age, disability and economic and social factors have an impact
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National competency standards for the registered nurse
on an individual?s responses to, and beliefs about, health and illness, and plans and modifies nursing care appropriately. The registered nurse provides care in a range of settings that may include acute, community, residential and extended care settings, homes, educational institutions or other work settings and modifies practice according to the model/s of care delivery. The registered nurse takes a leadership role in the coordination of nursing and health care within and across different care contexts to facilitate optimal health outcomes. This includes appropriate referral to, and consultation with, other relevant health professionals, service providers, and community and support services. The registered nurse contributes to quality health care through lifelong learning and professional development of herself/himself and others, research data generation, clinical supervision and development of policy and clinical practice guidelines. The registered nurse develops their professional practice in accordance with the health needs of the population/ society and changing patterns of disease and illness.
Domains
The competencies which make up the National Board National competency standards for the registered nurse are organised into domains.
Professional practice This relates to the professional, legal and ethical responsibilities which require demonstration of a satisfactory knowledge base, accountability for practice, functioning in accordance with legislation affecting nursing and health care, and the protection of individual and group rights.
Critical thinking and analysis This relates to self-appraisal, professional development and the value of evidence and research for practice. Reflecting on practice, feelings and beliefs and the consequences of these for individuals/groups is an important professional benchmark.
Provision and coordination of care This domain relates to the coordination, organisation and provision of nursing care that includes the assessment of individuals /groups, planning, implementation and evaluation of care.
Collaborative and therapeutic practice This relates to establishing, sustaining and concluding professional relationships with individuals/groups. This also contains those competencies that relate to nurses understanding their contribution to the interdisciplinary health care team.
National competency standards for the registered nurse
Professional practice
Relates to the professional, legal and ethical responsibilities which require demonstration of a satisfactory knowledge base, accountability for practice, functioning in accordance with legislation affecting nursing and health care, and the protection of individual and group rights.
1. Practises in accordance with legislation affecting nursing practice and health care
1.1 Complies with relevant legislation and common law:
? identifies legislation governing nursing practice
? describes nursing practice within the requirements of common law
? describes and adheres to legal requirements for medications
? identifies legal implications of nursing interventions
? actions demonstrate awareness of legal implications of nursing practice
? identifies and explains effects of legislation on the care of individuals/groups
? identifies and explains effects of legislation in the area of health, and
? identifies unprofessional practice as it relates to confidentiality and privacy legislation.
1.2 Fulfils the duty of care:
? performs nursing interventions in accordance with recognised standards of practice
? clarifies responsibility for aspects of care with other members of the health team
? recognises the responsibility to prevent harm, and
? performs nursing interventions following comprehensive and accurate assessments.
1.3 Recognises and responds appropriately to unsafe or unprofessional practice:
? identifies interventions which prevent care being compromised and/or law contravened
? identifies appropriate action to be taken in specified circumstances
? identifies and explains alternative strategies for intervention and their likely outcomes
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National competency standards for the registered nurse
? identifies behaviour that is detrimental to achieving optimal care, and ? follows up incidents of unsafe practice to prevent recurrence. 2. Practises within a professional and ethical nursing framework 2.1 Practises in accordance with the nursing profession?s codes of ethics and conduct: ? accepts individuals/groups regardless of race, culture, religion, age, gender, sexual preference, physical or mental state ? ensures that personal values and attitudes are not imposed on others ? conducts assessments that are sensitive to the needs of individuals/groups ? recognises and accepts the rights of others ? maintains an effective process of care when confronted by differing values, beliefs and biases ? seeks assistance to resolve situations involving moral conflict, and ? identifies and attempts to overcome factors which may constrain ethical decisions, in consultation with the health care team. 2.2 Integrates organisational policies and guidelines with professional standards: ? maintains current knowledge of and incorporates relevant professional standards into practice ? maintains current knowledge of and incorporates organisational policies and guidelines into practice ? reviews and provides feedback on the relevance of organisational policies and professional standards procedures to practice ? demonstrates awareness and understanding of developments in nursing that have an impact on the individual?s capacity to practise nursing, and ? considers individual health and wellbeing in relation to being fit for practice. 2.3 Practises in a way that acknowledges the dignity, culture, values, beliefs and rights of individuals/groups: ? demonstrates respect for individual/group common and legal rights in relation to health care ? identifies and adheres to strategies to promote and protect individual/group rights ? considers individual/group preferences when providing care
? clarifies individual/group requests to change and/ or refuse care with relevant members of the health care team
? advocates for individuals/groups when rights are overlooked and/or compromised
? accepts individuals/groups to whom care is provided regardless of race, culture, religion, age, gender, sexual preference, physical or mental state
? ensures that personal values and attitudes are not imposed on others
? undertakes assessments which are sensitive to the needs of individuals/groups
? recognises and accepts the rights of others
? maintains an effective process of care when confronted by differing values, beliefs and biases
? provides appropriate information within the nurse?s scope of practice to individuals/groups
? consults relevant members of the health care team when required
? questions and/or clarifies orders and decisions that are unclear, not understood or questionable, and
? questions and/or clarifies interventions that appear inappropriate with relevant members of the health care team.
2.4 Advocates for individuals/groups and their rights for nursing and health care within organisational and management structures:
? identifies when resources are insufficient to meet care needs of individuals/groups
? communicates skill mix requirements to meet care needs of individuals/groups to management
? protects the rights of individuals and groups and facilitates informed decisions
? identifies and explains policies/practices which infringe on the rights of individuals or groups
? clarifies policies, procedures and guidelines when rights of individuals or groups are compromised, and
? recommends changes to policies, procedures and guidelines when rights are compromised.
2.5 Understands and practises within own scope of practice: ? seeks clarification when questions, directions and decisions are unclear or not understood ? undertakes decisions about care that are within scope of competence without consulting senior staff
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National competency standards for the registered nurse
? raises concerns about inappropriate delegation with the appropriate registered nurse ? demonstrates accountability and responsibility for own actions within nursing practice ? assesses consequences of various outcomes of decision making ? consults relevant members of the health care team when required, and ? questions and/or clarifies interventions which appear inappropriate with relevant members of the health care team. 2.6 Integrates nursing and health care knowledge, skills and attitudes to provide safe and effective nursing care: ? maintains a current knowledge base ? considers ethical responsibilities in all aspects of practice ? ensures privacy and confidentiality when providing care, and ? questions and/or clarifies interventions which appear inappropriate with relevant members of the health care team. 2.7 Recognises the differences in accountability and responsibility between registered nurses, enrolled nurses and unlicensed care workers: ? understands requirements of statutory and professionally regulated practice ? understands requirements for delegation and supervision of practice, and ? raises concerns about inappropriate delegation with the relevant organisational or regulatory personnel.
Critical thinking and analysis
Relates to self-appraisal, professional development and the value of evidence and research for practice. Reflecting on practice, feelings and beliefs and the consequences of these for individuals/ groups is an important professional bench- mark.
3. Practises within an evidence-based framework
3.1 Identifies the relevance of research to improving individual/group health outcomes:
? identifies problems/issues in nursing practice that may be investigated through research
? considers potential for improvement in reviewing the outcomes of nursing activities and individual/ group care
? discusses implications of research with colleagues participates in research, and
? demonstrates awareness of current research in own field of practice.
3.2 Uses best available evidence, nursing expertise and respect for the values and beliefs of individuals/groups in the provision of nursing care:
? uses relevant literature and research findings to improve current practice
? participates in review of policies, procedures and guidelines based on relevant research
? identifies and disseminates relevant changes in practice or new information to colleagues
? recognises that judgements and decisions are aspects of nursing care, and
? recognises that nursing expertise varies with education, experience and context of practice.
3.3 Demonstrates analytical skills in accessing and evaluating health information and research evidence:
? demonstrates understanding of the registered nurse role in contributing to nursing research
? undertakes critical analysis of research findings in considering their application to practice
? maintains accurate documentation of information which could be used in nursing research, and
? clarifies when resources are not understood or their application is questionable.
3.4 Supports and contributes to nursing and health care research:
? participates in research, and
? identifies problems suitable for research.
3.5 Participates in quality improvement activities:
? recognises that quality improvement involves ongoing consideration, use and review of practice in relation to practice outcomes, standards and guidelines and new developments
? seeks feedback from a wide range of sources to improve the quality of nursing care
? participates in case review activities, and
? participates in clinical audits.
4. Participates in ongoing professional development of self and others
4.1 Uses best available evidence, standards and guidelines to evaluate nursing performance:
? undertakes regular self-evaluation of own nursing practice
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National competency standards for the registered nurse
? seeks and considers feedback from colleagues about, and critically reflects on, own nursing practice, and ? participates actively in performance review processes. 4.2 Participates in professional development to enhance nursing practice: ? reflects on own practice to identify professionaldevelopment needs ? seeks aIDitional knowledge and/or information when presented with unfamiliar situations ? seeks support from colleagues in identifying learning needs ? participates actively in ongoing professional development, and ? maintains records of involvement in professional development which includes both formal and informal activities. 4.3 Contributes to the professional development of others: ? demonstrates an increasing responsibility to share knowledge with colleagues ? supports health care students to meet their learning objectives in cooperation with other members of the health care team ? facilitates mutual sharing of knowledge and experience with colleagues relating to individual/ group/unit problems ? contributes to orientation and ongoing education programs ? acts as a role model to other members of the health care team ? participates where possible in preceptorship, coaching and mentoring to assist and develop colleagues ? participates where appropriate in teaching others including students of nursing and other health disciplines, and inexperienced nurses, and ? contributes to formal and informal professional development. 4.4 Uses appropriate strategies to manage own responses to the professional work environment: ? identifies and uses support networks ? shares experiences related to professional issues with colleagues, and ? uses reflective practice to identify personal needs and seek appropriate support.
Provision and coordination of care
Relates to the coordination, organisation and provision of nursing care that includes the assessment of individuals/ groups, planning, implementation and evaluation of care.
5. Conducts a comprehensive and systematic nursing assessment
5.1 Uses a relevant evidence-based assessment framework to collect data about the physical socio-cultural and mental health of the individual/group:
? approaches and organises assessment in a structured way
? uses all available evidence sources, including individuals/groups/significant others, health care team, records, reports, and own knowledge and experience
? collects data that relate to physiological, psychological, spiritual, socio-economic and cultural variables on an ongoing basis
? understands the role of research-based, and other forms of evidence
? confirms data with the individual/group and members of the health care team
? uses appropriate assessment tools and strategies to assist the collection of data
? frames questions in ways that indicate the use of a theoretical framework/structured approach, and
? ensures practice is sensitive and supportive to cultural issues.
5.2 Uses a range of assessment techniques to collect relevant and accurate data:
? uses a range of data-gathering techniques, including observation, interview, physical examination and measurement in obtaining a nursing history and assessment
? collaboratively identifies actual and potential health problems through accurate interpretation of data
? accurately uses health care technologies in accordance with manufacturer?s specification and organisational policy
? identifies deviations from normal, or improvements, in the individual?s/group?s health status, and
? identifies and incorporates the needs and preferences of the individual/ group into a plan of care.
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National competency standards for the registered nurse
5.3 Analyses and interprets assessment data accurately:
? recognises that clinical judgements involve consideration of conflicting information and evidence
? identifies types and sources of supplementary information for nursing assessment
? describes the role of supplementary information in nursing assessment, and
? demonstrates knowledge of quantitative and qualitative data to assess individual/group needs.
6. Plans nursing care in consultation with individuals/ groups, significant others and the interdisciplinary health care team
6.1 Determines agreed priorities for resolving health needs of individuals/groups:
? incorporates relevant assessment data in developing a plan for care
? determines priorities for care, based on nursing assessment of an individual?s/group?s needs for intervention, current nursing knowledge and research, and
? considers individual/group preferences when determining priorities for care in performance review processes.
6.2 Identifies expected and agreed individual/group health outcomes including a time frame for achievement:
? establishes realistic short- and long-term goals that identify individual/group health outcomes and specify condition for achievement
? identifies goals that are measurable, achievable, and congruent with values and beliefs of the individual/group and/or significant others
? uses resources to support the achievement of outcomes, and
? identifies criteria for evaluation of expected outcomes.
6.3 Documents a plan of care to achieve expected outcomes:
? ensures that plans of care are based on an ongoing analysis of assessment data
? plans care that is consistent with current nursing knowledge and research, and
? documents plans of care clearly.
6.4 Plans for continuity of care to achieve expected outcomes:
? collaboratively supports the therapeutic interventions of other health team members
? maintains and documents information necessary for continuity of the plan of care
? responds to individual/group or carer?s educational needs
? provides or facilitates provision of an individual?s/ group?s or carer?s resources and aids as required
? identifies and recommends appropriate agency, government and community resources to ensure continuity of care
? initiates necessary contacts and referrals to external agencies, and
? forwards all information needed for continuity of care when an individual/group is transferred to another facility or discharged.
7. Provides comprehensive, safe and effective evidence-based nursing care to achieve identified individual/group health outcomes
7.1 Effectively manages the nursing care of individuals/ groups:
? uses resources effectively and efficiently in providing care
? performs actions in a manner consistent with relevant nursing principles
? performs procedures confidently and safely
? monitors responses of individuals/groups throughout each intervention and adjusts care accordingly, and
? provides education and support to assist development and maintenance of independent living skills
7.2 Provides nursing care according to the documented care or treatment plan:
? acts consistently with the predetermined plan of care
? uses a range of appropriate strategies to facilitate the individual/group?s achievement of short and long term expected goals
7.3 Prioritises workload based on the individual/group?s needs, acuity and optimal time for intervention:
? determines priorities for care, based on nursing assessment of an individual/group?s needs for intervention, current nursing knowledge and research
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National competency standards for the registered nurse
? considers the individual/group?s preferences when determining priorities for care
7.4 Responds effectively to unexpected or rapidly changing situations
? responds effectively to emergencies
? maintains self-control in the clinical setting and under stress conditions
? implements crisis interventions and emergency routines as necessary
? maintains current knowledge of emergency plans and procedures to maximise effectiveness in crisis situations, and
? participates in emergency management practices and drills according to agency policy
7.5 Delegates aspects of care to others according to their competence and scope of practice:
? delegates aspects of care according to role, functions, capabilities and learning needs
? monitors aspects of care delegated to others and provides clarification/assistance as required
? recognises own accountabilities and responsibilities when delegating aspects of care to others, and
? delegates to and supervises others consistent with legislation and organisational policy.
7.6 Provides effective and timely direction and supervision to ensure that delegated care is provided safely and accurately:
? supervises and evaluates nursing care provided by others
? uses a range of direct and indirect techniques such as instructing, coaching, mentoring, and collaborating in the supervision and support of others
? provides support with documentation to nurses being supervised or to whom care has been delegated, and
? delegates activities consistent with scope of practice/competence
7.7 Educates individuals/groups to promote independence and control over their health
? identifies and documents specific educational requirements and requests of individuals/groups
? undertakes formal and informal education sessions with individuals/groups as necessary, and
? identifies appropriate educational resources, including other health professionals.
7.8 Uses health care resources effectively and efficiently to promote optimal nursing and health care
? recognises when nursing resources are insufficient to meet an individual?s/group?s needs
? demonstrates flexibility in providing care where resources are limited, and
? recognises the responsibility to report to relevant persons when level of resources risks compromising the quality of care
8. Evaluates progress towards expected individual/group health outcomes in consultation with individuals/groups, significant others and interdisciplinary health care team
8.1 Determines progress of individuals/groups toward planned outcomes:
? recognises when individual?s/group?s progress and expected progress differ and modifies plans and actions accordingly
? discusses progress with the individual/group
? evaluates individual/group responses to interventions, and
? assesses the effectiveness of the plan of care in achieving planned outcomes
8.2 Revises the plan of care and determines further outcomes in accordance with evaluation data:
? revises expected outcomes, nursing interventions and priorities with any change in an individual?s/ group?s condition, needs or situational variations
? communicates new information and revisions to members of the health care team as required
Collaborative and therapeutic practice
Relates to establishing, sustaining and concluding pro- fessional relationships with individuals/groups. This also contains those competencies that relate to nurses understanding their contribution to the interdisciplinary health care team.
9. Establishes, maintains and appropriately concludes therapeutic relationships
9.1 Establishes therapeutic relationships that are goal directed and recognises professional boundaries:
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National competency standards for the registered nurse
? demonstrates empathy, trust and respect for the dignity and potential of the individual/group
? interacts with individuals/groups in a supportive manner
? effectively initiates, maintains and concludes interpersonal interactions
? establishes rapport with individuals/groups that enhances their ability to express feelings, and fosters an appropriate context for expression of feeling
? understands the potential benefits of partnership approaches on nurse individual/group relationships, and
? demonstrates an understanding of standards and practices of professional boundaries and therapeutic relationships.
9.2 Communicates effectively with individuals/groups to facilitate provision of care:
? uses a range of effective communication techniques
? uses language appropriate to the context
? uses written and spoken communication skills appropriate to the needs of individuals/groups
? uses an interpreter where appropriate
? provides adequate time for discussion
? establishes, where possible, alternative communication methods for individuals/groups who are unable to verbalise, and
? uses open/closed questions appropriately.
9.3 Uses appropriate strategies to promote an individual?s/ group?s self-esteem, dignity, integrity and comfort:
? identifies and uses strategies which encourage independence
? identifies and uses strategies which affirm individuality
? uses strategies which involve the family/significant others in care
? identifies and recommends appropriate support networks to individuals/groups
? identifies situations which may threaten the dignity/ integrity of an individual/group
? implements measures to maintain dignity of individuals/groups during periods of self-care deficit
? implements measures to support individuals/ groups experiencing emotional distress, and
? information is provided to individuals/groups to enhance their control over their own health care.
9.4 Assists and supports individuals/groups to make informed health care decisions:
? facilitates and encourages individual/group decision-making
? maintains and supports respect for an individual/ group?s decision through communication with other members of the interdisciplinary health care team, and
? arranges consultation to support individuals/ groups to make informed decisions regarding health care
9.5 Facilitates a physical, psychosocial, cultural and spiritual environment that promotes individual/group safety and security:
? demonstrates sensitivity, awareness and respect for cultural identity as part of an individual?s/ group?s perceptions of security
? demonstrates sensitivity, awareness and respect in regard to an individual?s/group?s spiritual needs
? involves family and others in ensuring that cultural and spiritual needs are met
? identifies, eliminates or prevents environmental hazards where possible
? applies relevant principles to ensure the safe administration of therapeutic substances
? maintains standards for infection control
? applies ergonomic principles to prevent injury to individual/group and self
? prioritises safety problems
? adheres to occupational health and safety legislation
? modifies environmental factors to meet an individual/group?s comfort needs where possible
? promotes individual/group comfort throughout interventions, and
? uses ergonomic principles and appropriate aids to promote the individual/group?s comfort
10. Collaborates with the interdisciplinary health care team to provide comprehensive nursing care
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National competency standards for the registered nurse
10.1 Recognises that the membership and roles of health care teams and service providers will vary depending on an individual?s/group?s needs and health care setting:
? recognises the impact and role of population, primary health and partnership health care models
? recognises when to negotiate with, or refer to, other health care or service providers
? establishes positive and productive working relationships with colleagues, and
? recognises and understands the separate and interdependent roles and functions of health care team members.
10.2 Communicates nursing assessments and decisions to the interdisciplinary health care team and other relev

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