Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

Yuen-Shan H, Yang X,ChunYeung,et al, Cigarette Smoking Accelerated Brain Aging
and Induced Pre-Alzheimer-Like Neuropathology in Rats.Vol. 7 Issue 5, p1-11.May 2012print.
According to these authors,Cigarette smoking has been touted as the major cause of problems that come with old age. But currently, there is no known link between the effects of smoking and the impairment of one’s ability to perform intellectually. The authors were particularly concerned how the smoke could affect the aging of the brain. This was done on rats. From the study, it was found that smoking for a long time caused changes in the synapses in the brain. Because of these changes observed in rats they concluded that long term smoking can also lead to brain damage and consequently development of problems like loss of memory.
Ronald J, Kelder S H, Regina J,ProkhorovAV,MeshackA,et al, Cigarette Smoking
Topography Among Alternative School Youth: Why African American Youth Smoke Less But are at Higher Long-Term Risk. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs;, Vol. 44 Issue 3, p252-258, Jul/Aug2012 print.
From the finding carried out by this team of researchers, they found it ironical that the people who smoked less had a higher long term risk as compared to their counterparts. This was especially the case in African Americans. From this research done on AfricanAmericans and the white Americans of ages 18-19 years, it was found that the Africans smoke the whole cigarettes as compared to their counterparts. The reason behind these is the urge to extent the value of their money. This long and deep puffing by the black Americans is believed to be the main contributor and not the number of sticks.
Yaya Bajo,Stop Smoking Is the Magical Step of a Healthy and Long Life. Gale
Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Africa News Service.16 Oct. 2012Web.
In this article by Kaya Bajo, the author highlights the adverse effects smoking canhave on the humanbeing. He begins by defining the term cigaretteand the chemical composition of this drug. The author goes ahead to discuss the harmful effect of smoking on the individual ranging from the mild ailments to the most fatal and definite one which is death.in this article the author also demystifies, the myths, beliefs and the misconceptions that surrounds the topic of cigarette smoking.

Wascher Robert, A Smoking Advertisements Influence Teen Smoking
How Does Advertising Impact Teen Behavior?2012 print.
Wascher in this article aims to explain the impact the adverts placed in the media have on the children. Additionally, he aims to reveal the shocking statistics about how this advertising can make children to engage in smoking at tender ages due to what they see, hear and read in the media about smoking. He is of the opinion that because the numbers of regularsmokers havebeen decreasing over time, the tobacco companies have upped their game toensure they net as many people as possible.this article aims to show the numbers as regards the extent of cigarette smoking brought about by the intense campaigns and advertising especially targeting the youth. DubeS,McClaveA,Caraballo, Kaufmann R, andPechacek T, “Vital Signs: Current
Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Aged 18 and Older.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010 Print.
In this articlethe authors who also double up as researchers working with the Centre for disease control and prevention aim to highlight a number of issues. First they aim to showhow cigarette smoking has been on the rise. Theyalso highlight which of the groupsare more vulnerable to smoking. Of importance to these researchers is, the need to explain some pertinent issues like why should the youth be used as the basis of the tobacco smoking survey. Another question they aim to be answered is, whether there are differences in the occurrence of smokers in the different regions. Lastly, they aim to come up with suggestions of how to curb the menace of smoking among the teenagers.
Flouris A, PoulianitiKChortiM,Jamurtas A, Kouretas D, OwolabiE,Tzatzarakis M et al,
Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count.Food & Chemical Toxicology; Vol. 50 Issue 10, p3600-3603, Oct2012 print.
Following the WHO request for assessment of how safe the e-cigarette was, the researchers embarked on how safe it was to smoke e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette and its impact on the complete blood count. The subjects were subjected to three sessions at different times: one where there was no smoking, the other where they smoked tobaccocigarette and lastly the one where they smoked e-cigarette. The findings showed that for the controlledgroup, there was no change. For the active smoking, it was noted that there was an increase in the following components of blood; white blood cells and granulocytes just for one hour. For the regular smokers there was noticeable change. From this it was concluded that e-cigarette both in passive and active smoking does not have an impact on the complete blood count
Hana R, BlecheE,Yan&,Hyland A, Do cigarette prices motivate smokers to quit? New
evidence from the ITC survey.Vol. 106 Issue 3, p609-619.2010 Print
In this article, the authors aimtoexplain and explore the reasons why the teenage mothers still keeponsmoking in pregnancy despite the fact that thenumber of smokers throughout thecountry was on the decline. Some of thereasons advanced for this include the socioeconomic status of thegirls and their environment. Other reasons are their state of mind during pregnancy.
Brown D, Teen Smoking Hastens Heart, Lung Decline, Washington Post (Washington, DC)
Mar 8, 2012 Print.
According to the author of this article, smoking has very profound effects on the health of an individual especially the lungs and the heart. The author is of the opinion that the intake of smoke from cigarettes early in life reduces the full development of the lungs and may also lead to development of heart diseases due to the accumulation of plagues in the circulatory system. These articles thus aim to give the reader a broader understanding of the cigarette smoking on these vital organs in the body.
Wanjek C, 5 Health Benefits of Smoking, Live Science’s Bad Medicine. 19 July 2011 Web.
This author gives us the side to this controversial debate about smoking.in his article the author gives us the advantages that an individual who smokes has over the one who does not. He attempts to explain how the smoke from the cigarettes can protect one from some diseases like cancer and heart diseases and also improve their coping ability in some of the life threatening ailments.as much as he tries to explain this his view is not scientific
Gormle M,States Called on to Restore Anti-Smoking Funds; Ithaca Journal,
2012 Print.
The author of this article aims to underscore the importance anti-smoking campaigns. He is of the opinion that these campaigns should be funded maximally in order to achieve a smoking free society. The author is pushed by his own experience as smoker and the struggles he went through to get out smoking.
Introduction
The subject of cigarette smoking has been here with the people for a very longtime. Theargument abouthow smoking isdetrimental to the health of the people ishere to stay. The impact of the smoking cannot be over emphasized.it ranges from the discoloration of the teeth and emission of bad breath that are noticeable to the unseen effects like the decline in heart , lung and other organ functions. Although many people claim that smoking is good because of the pleasures they derive from smoking, smoking is still one of the leading causes of cancers and heart problems in people. Most of the people, who smoke, understand very well the effects of the habit but still choose to continue with it due to the pleasure they derive from smoking (Hana R, BlecheE,Yan&,Hyland A, Pgs 609-619).It is estimated that for every two people who start to smoke at least one person dies of the effects of smoking (Brown D, Teen Smoking Hastens Heart, Lung Decline). In this paper, we are going to discuss the various viewpoints of the authors regarding the issue of smoking. We will discuss the main points found in each article

Discussion
? It is believed that persistent smoking during early days of life will ultimately result indiminished functioning of the lungs in adulthood. The lungs may also fail to develop fully as smoking delays their development. From most of the articles it is evident that continued use of cigarette will lead to the destruction of one’s system. The continued passage of smoke through the respiratory system damages the entire system and this in turn may make the system susceptible to infections that could have been prevented were it that one did not smoke. From research done, it is estimated that women who smoke are thirteen times more likely to develop lung cancer than counterparts who don’t smoke. The situationis even worse when it comes to men as the probability of getting lung cancer even increases to about 23 foldthe men who smoke.
? It is also evident that smoking is killer as it is estimated that for each person who dies of smoking there are double this number who start the habit. This goes to show that smoking is not to end soon.it is also estimated that a lot of people who die from the tobacco related deaths may not have been necessarily smokers themselves but the smoke emanated from other people who may have been smoking near them. This is why there is a call towards ensuring that public smoking is eliminated to reduce the number of deaths that accrue from the secondary smoking. Smoking is associated with millions ofdeaths annually and it is believed that those who smoke will die earlier by about thirteen to fourteen years.According to the African News Service (Anti-Smoking Law Will Save Lives), the bill that was passed by parliament aimed at ensuring that no person smokes in a public area.
? Another point that features most in these articles is the effect of advertising on the success of the campaign to reduce cigarette smoking. The governmentefforts to reduce the number of deaths from smoking have been yielding fruits over time as the numbers have been on the decline. This has been attributed to the increase in awareness among the people. But these gains are about to be reversed by the tobacco manufacturing companies that have come up with new innovative ways to attract the people to smoke again. These have especially targeted the youth mainly the teenagers. According to a survey conducted on the youth in America (2003-2008), most of the teens who were subjected to adverts of cigarette product ended up using the cigarettes.
? The problems related smoking take time to evident. A case in mind being the delayed occurrence of lung problems despite the person starting the habit in early teenage years
? Smoking also affects the heart functions. This is believed to be the leading cause of death among the people.it is believed to cause the development of atherosclerotic plagues in the cardiovascular system
? Smoking is also linked to a decline in weight. Through research it was found that those who stopped reported an increase in weight
? Smoking leads to decline in the reproductive ability of the smoker. This especially in men it is manifested as decline in the sperm count.
? It also highlights the chemicals found in the cigarette that include cyanide and ammonia that may have adverse effects on the health of the individual.
Solutions
From the above articles there were an array of suggested solutions to the problem of smoking include;
Authors’:
? The government should come up with a good legislative framework. An example is the bill to ban public smoking.
? This however should be accompanied by adequate follow up to ensure the legislations are adhered to.
? The government should also increase the funding to the anti-cigarette smoking campaign.
? This should also be coupled with the heavy taxation of tobacco products to discourage its production.
? Proper public awareness should be carried out especially among the teens to help them discern the messages in the commercials properly
? The government should ensure that the companies making cigarettes display public health messages and warnings in a visible manner on the pack.
? Another suggestion fronted by researchers is the use smoke free cigarettes. They believe through this, the smoker will be able to get the desired nicotine but not have to deal with the harmful effects of the smoke. This may come as great news for the smokers (Asian News International ,Smokeless Tobacco ‘Could Help Save Lives)
My solutions
? The government should come up with programs that encourage rehabilitation of the addicts in order to curb the number of deaths that result from smoking.
? The government should come up with programs mainly targeting the youth and using the media they love to use to communicate the resources available about the effect s of smoking.
? The youth should also be taught and be involved in recreation activities that will distract them from smoking
? The government should also set up designated smoking points to help curb the problem of secondary smoking
Conclusion
From this assignment I have come to acknowledge the diverse effects of smoking and the ways to manage it. Finally, the war to fight the use and abuse of cigarettes should be fought from all quarters to ensure its success. Both the citizens and the manufacturing companies should cooperate with the government to reduce the number of deaths from this. People should stop believing on the myths a about and realize that the dangers of smoking are real

Works cited.
Brown D, Teen Smoking Hastens Heart, Lung Decline, Washington Post (Washington, DC)
Mar 8, 2012 Print
DubeS,McClaveA,Caraballo, Kaufmann R &Pechacek T, “Vital Signs: Current
Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Aged 18 and Older.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010 Print
Doward J, and Simpson D, “Why Pregnant Teenagers Are Happy to Carry on Smoking.”
The Observer. 11 Mar 2012: 25. SIRS Issues Researcher.Web. 16 Oct 2012.
Flouris A, PoulianitiKChortiM,Jamurtas A, Kouretas D, Owolabi E Tzatzarakis M et al,
Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count. Food& Chemical Toxicology; Vol. 50 Issue 10, p3600-3603, Oct2012 print
Gormle M, States Called on to Restore Anti-Smoking Funds; Ithaca Journal,
2012 Print
Hana R, BlecheE,Yan&,Hyland A, Do cigarette prices motivate smokers to quit? New
evidence from the ITC survey. Vol. 106 Issue 3, p609-619.2010 Print
Ronald J, Kelder S H, Regina J,ProkhorovAV,MeshackA,et al, Cigarette
Smoking Topography Among Alternative School Youth: Why African American Youth Smoke Less But are at Higher Long-Term Risk. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs;, Vol. 44 Issue 3, p252-258, Jul/Aug2012 print
Wanjek C, 5 Health Benefits of Smoking, Live Science’s Bad Medicine. 19 July 2011 Web.
Yaya B, Stop Smoking Is the Magical Step of a Healthy and Long Life. Gale
Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Africa News Service 16 Oct. 2012Web

Yuen-Shan H, Yang X,ChunYeung,et al, Cigarette Smoking Accelerated Brain
Aging and Induced Pre-Alzheimer-Like Neuropathology in Rats.Vol. 7 Issue 5, p1-11, 11p, May 2012 print.

Looking for a similar assignment? Get help from our qualified experts!

Order Now

Related Posts