Autonomy is defined as the capacity of a normal individual to make decisions on a given course of action or situation. As one of the major ethical views, autonomy advocates for increased effort to support independent decision-making at the individual level.
Autonomy seeks to advance the idea of self-determination as the principal framework guiding the personal rule of the self. It advocates non-interference from others and personal limitations as the conditions necessary for making autonomous choices. When embodied in individual people, autonomy becomes the object of respect. The value of autonomy is how it allows an individual to express himself or herself freely while exercising her capacity as a rational being capable of governing herself. However, while this view gives the ultimate power for a rational person to self-govern and to employ personal rule in making independent decisions, it ignores the various duties arising out of special relationships or circumstances.
Tolerance is the deliberate attempt of permitting or allowing a thing of which one disapproves. Tolerance is one of the most controversial moral views based on how it extends to critical matters of politics and religion in society. This view expresses the attitude of being open to the views or actions of others, although the latter are deemed with disapproval as harmful, inferior, or even mistaken. With the ongoing changes in the contemporary society, ethics of tolerance provides a significant point to support inclusion and diversity. The linkage between tolerance and western democracy elucidates the value to involve the status of minority groups and dissenting worldviews on various moral matters. This ideological principle neither commands individuals to good nor avoid evil as in the case of most Christianity or other religious teachings. In other words, it does not provide justification for illegal participation in an intrinsically evil action, but only the toleration of others involved in actions that are evil, and where the eradication of such unwanted practice may prove morally or practically feasible.
Self-respect is vital in the satisfaction of one’s desires, and the pursuit of ends since it helps to improve a person’s level of self-governance. It provides the baseline that defines one’s capacity to look inwardly and respect what is there.
Many scholars have argued to support the position of empathy as central to all works of ethics. The theoretical works of Simone Weil and Iris Murdoch emphasizes the importance of developing one’s capacity for attention as the integral to having ethical empathy. The level of empathy may be influenced by numerous cultural and personal factors, which may shape the degree of empathy one possess for the other. As the central moral emotion, empathy relates to ethical leadership and our ability to connect with other people and communities as a whole. Understanding the motives, feelings, or situations of others is critical in helping leaders to act in ways that comply with their moral judgments on issues that concern them. However, conflict of interest may arise if such decisions contravene our moral beliefs or values. Handling issues with an empathetic understanding can provide a clear approach to ‘fit the shoe’ of others.
e. Fair and Just
In the general context, ethics revolves around what is right, fair and just; about what we are expected to do, not just about what is perceived as a case or what is the most acceptable or expedient in a given context. The principle of fairness and justice defines our understanding of virtue and moral character on issues that relate to the distribution of resources or benefits in society. The fairness advance puts a spotlight on how fairly or unfairly our actions, processes, or behaviors distribute benefits and burdens among the members of the community or a given group. The moral obligations resulting from the core ethical values of fairness and justice are often always associated with the effort to exercise power when rendering judgments about others or ourselves. However, while the basic concepts of fairness and justice are simple, it proves difficult to apply them in real life situations.
Kant’s Categorical Imperative
In the ethical system of Em